Why Is Gaining Consent a Legal Obligation in Nursing

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Before the procedure, you must complete and sign a consent form. This form is a legal document that shows your participation in the decision and your consent to carry out the procedure. In some cases, someone else may sign a consent form for you. This is appropriate in the following scenarios: Informed consent is defined as the patient`s choice of treatment or procedure based on their complete understanding of the treatment or procedure, its benefits, risks, and any alternatives to the treatment or procedure in question. All clients have the right to autonomy and self-determination to accept or refuse all treatments and procedures. This study examined nurses` perception of their training, which is provided by their patient information communication program. The first result was that male subjects (13.11% of nurses) responded significantly more positive values (p-value = 0.002) than female subjects (86.89%). The second result was that nurses with less work experience believed they were sufficiently prepared to inform patients: their responses found significantly more positive values (p-value = 0.000). It can be inferred that nurses with less work experience consider the training they have received to be sufficient to provide information to the patient, compared to those who have worked longer. The data showed no statistically significant association with the education and young age of nurses. On the contrary, in addition to reduced professional experience (p-value = 0.042), the study by Ingravallo et al. also found associations with young age (p-value = 0.016) and higher education (p-value = 0.002) [15]. Nurses with these characteristics are more confident that their training is adequate to provide information to patients.

In general, responses to this question do not differ from significantly positive or negative values (> value 0.05), suggesting the need for updating in universities and hospital departments involving more nurses working longer [10,11]. The years of work in the different stations (10.48 ± 9.09), obtaining the post-baccalaureate (8.25%) and post-master (0.49%) were not relevant to answering questions of opinion and experience. As reported in 2010, both registered and non-certified nurses may have difficulty meeting their own ethical requirements to address areas of interest in all health settings [12]. In his study conducted in four different regions of the United States, Ulrich found that informed consent remains one of the most frequently cited ethical issues in everyday clinical practice [16]. As Axson reported in 2017, this is still the case today: thirty percent of our participants disagree with the statement that their bachelor`s degree prepared them to actively participate in consent processes. Despite this lack of preparation for university teaching, three-quarters of nurses in the study reported that if they are unsure of a component of the consent process, they know what resources they have available in their unit to support it [11]. In the 2017 Ingravallo study [14], when asked if caregivers had difficulty providing information to patients, Korean and Italian nurses reported only mild difficulties, correlated with lack of time or opportunities during working hours, patients` inability to understand information, and insufficient information about the patient`s treatment plan. The same author states that there is insufficient emphasis on communication skills in medical and nursing curricula.

There are significant differences between stations. Question 9b asks to what extent the nurse`s work facilitated the patient`s information on the care plan. Nurses in the general surgery department reacted more negatively than Libra compared to their colleagues in hematology and neurosurgery. Obtaining informed consent in medicine is a process that should include: (1) describing the proposed intervention, (2) emphasizing the patient`s role in decision-making, (3) discussing alternatives to the proposed procedure, (4) discussing the risks of the proposed procedure, and (5) determining patient preference (usually by signature). Considering all risks in this context is of paramount importance for informed consent. Most consents include general risks, procedural risks, risks without treatment, and alternatives to treatment. In addition, many informed consents express that there is no guarantee that the proposed procedure will provide a solution to the problem at hand. Informed consent is essential to patient autonomy. Informed consent requires a thorough understanding of transfusions and the ability to convey this information to a patient in a way that the patient can understand.

However, obtaining consent often has gaps in the statement where the benefits may not be entirely true and the associated risks are omitted. [7]. Involving transfusion unit experts in obtaining informed consent for transfusions has been shown to help patients better understand the risks and benefits. [8] However, seeking expert advice may not be the most effective way to obtain consent, although new physicians with PhDs have a lack of knowledge in transfusion medicine.

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